Signatories

The document “Convergência pelo Brasil” unites contributions from former Ministers of the Economy and Presidents of the Central Bank with significant services to the nation under different governments for the common good: restore the Brazilian economy with sustainability and social and environmental responsibility.

Armínio-Fraga

ARMÍNIO FRAGA

(President of the Central Bank from 03.04.1999 to 01.01.2003)
He graduated in Economics from the Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-RJ) and holds a doctoral degree from Princeton University. In March 1999, left the Soros Fund Management board of directors to become the president of the Central Bank, a position he occupied until January 2003. Afterwards, he created the Gávea Investimentos, a patrimony management company where he still acts to this day. He is also a founding partner at the Instituto de Estudos para Políticas de Saúde (IEPS), a non-lucrative organization looking to contribute to the enhancement of public policies inside the Brazilian health sector.

EDUARDO GUARDIA

(Minister of the Economy from 04.10.2018 to 12.31.2018)
Holding a doctoral degree in Economics from the Universidade de São Paulo (USP) and a master degree from the Universidade Estadual de Campinas (Unicamp), was the executive secretary during Henrique Meirelles’ acting as minister of the economy. Additionally, he was secretary of the National Treasury, State of São Paulo’s secretary of the economy, and product and investors relationship director at the former BM&FBovespa. Nowadays, works as the president of the BTG Pactual Asset Management.

GUSTAVO LOYOLA

(President of the Central Bank from 11.13.1992 to 03.29.2003 and 06.13.1995 to 08.20.1997)
Former director of financial market regulations and chief of the capital market regulations department of the Central Bank (1990-1992), and, following that period, became president of the Central Bank, after the impeachment of former Brazilian president Fernando Collor. Returned to the position of president of the CB on June 1995, remaining in the position until August 1997, when commanded the rearrangement of the Brazilian bank system. Currently, works a partner on the consulting firm Tendências Consultoria Integrada.

HENRIQUE MEIRELLES

(Minister of the Economy from 05.13.2016 to 04.06.2018 and President of the Central Bank from 01.01.2003 to 01.01.2011)
Earned his graduation on Civil Engineering from the Escola Politécnica at the University of São Paulo, was the president of the Central Bank from January 2003 until November 2010, the longest period at the position until today. Before assuming the position at the CB, was the global president of the BankBoston and, in 2002, was elected as a congressman, position abdicated in order to take the presidency of the monetary administration. Between 2016 and 2018, was the minister of the Economy, followed by his candidacy for Brazil’s Presidency. It is currently the State of São Paulo’s secretary of the economy.

ILAN GOLDFAJN

(President of the Central Bank from 06.09.2016 to 02.27.2019)
He graduated in Economics from the Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro in 1988, obtained his doctorate from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in 1995. Preceding his time as the president of the CB, worked at the academy, international institutions, such as the International Monetary Fund (IMF), and at the finance sector. It’s currently the president of Credit Suisse in Brazil.

JOAQUIM LEVY

(Minister of the Economy from 01.01.2015 to 12.21.2015)
Holds a PhD in Economics from the University of Chicago, a master degree in economics from the Fundação Getúlio Vargas and a bachelor degree in Naval Engineering from the Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro. In January 2003, was designated as the secretary of the national treasury and, in 2007, became State of Rio de Janeiro’s secretary of the economy. Between 2010 and the end of 2014, was the head of corporate strategies and director responsible by the asset management of the bank Bradesco and, in 2018, had a brief tenure as the president of the National Bank for Economic and Social Development (BNDES). Nowadays, works as the director of economic strategies and market relations at the Banco Safra

MAÍLSON DA NÓBREGA

(Minister of the Economy from 12.21.1987 to 03.15.1990)
Holds a bachelor degree in Economics from the Faculdade de Ciências Econômicas Contábeis e de Administração from the Federal District (1974), was a long-serving at the Bank of Brazil since 1963. Presently works as a partner of the consulting firm Tendências and is part of the counselling board in several companies.

MARCÍLIO MARQUES MOREIRA

(Minister of the Economy from 05.10.1991 to 10.02.1992)
Finished, in 1954, the course Preparation for the Diplomat Career of the Instituto Rio Branco and, in 1957, earned his bachelor degree in Law from the Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ). At the end of 1968, invited by Moreira Salles, left, after ten years of service, the Itamaraty personnel to become the vice-president of Unibanco, where he worked until 1983, when decided to integrate the Administration Board of the financial group. In 1986, accepted the position of Brazil’s ambassador in the United States of America. Currently, works as president of the Corporate Council for Economic Policies of Rio de Janeiro’s Commercial Association (Conselho Empresarial de Políticas Econômicas da Associação Comercial do Rio de Janeiro, ACRJ).

NELSON BARBOSA

(Minister of the Economy from 12.21.2015 to 05.12.2016)
Earned his bachelor degree in Economics from the Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ) in 1992, and also holds a doctorate from the New School of Social Research, from New York. Author of a large number of articles, published in books and journals, was one of the coordinators of the book Política de Salário Mínimo para o Brasil (2015-2018), published in 2015. Assumed the ministry of Planning, Budget and Management and at the end of the same year, was nominated as minister of the Economy. Presently, works as a professor in the Fundação Getúlio Vargas (FGV).

PEDRO MALAN

(Minister of the Economy from 01.01.1995 to 01.01.2003 and president of the Central Bank from 09.09.1993 to 12.31.1994)
Was the minister of the Economy during two terms of Fernando Henrique Cardoso and, before that, presided the Central Bank, participating in the development of the Plano real. Between 1991 and 1993, was the leading negotiator of Brazilian external debt. After leaving the government, participated in administration boards of some big companies, such as Itaú Unibanco and Via Varejo. Holds a doctorate in Economics and also was a professor at PUC-RJ.

PÉRSIO ARIDA

(President of the Central Bank from 01.11.1995 to 06.13.1995)
Earned his bachelor degree in Economics from the Universidade de São Paulo (USP) (1975) and holds a doctorate from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) (1992), was a professor at USP and the Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-RJ). Worked in the elaboration of the Plano Real, was president of the National Bank for Economic and Social Development (BNDES) between 1993 and 1994. Since 2018, integrates the counsel of the Conselho Acadêmico do Livres, a Brazilian sociopolitical movement that defends economic and social liberalism.

RUBENS RICÚPERO

(Minister of the Economy from 03.30.1994 to 09.06.1994)
He graduated in Law and Social Sciences from the Faculdade de Direito da Universidade de São Paulo (USP), completed a preparation course for the diplomacy career, becoming an ambassador. Additionally, was a professor at the Universidade de Brasília and Instituto Rio Branco. Worked as the minister of the Environment from September 1993 to April 1994 and, following that period, assumed the ministry of Economy, participating in the creation of the Plano Real. Nowadays, is the director of the Faculdade Fundação Armando Álvares Penteado, and president emeritus of the Instituto Fernand Braudel.
Hoje é diretor da Faculdade Fundação Armando Álvares Penteado, e presidente emérito do Instituto Fernand Braudel.

Zélia Cardoso de Mello

(Minister of the Economy from 03.15.1990 to 05.10.1991)
She graduated in Economics from the Faculdade de Economia e Administração of Universidade de São Paulo, holds a doctorate and also was a professor at the same institution, with participation in various research projects. Invited by the former minister of the Economy Dilson Funaro to integrate its economic team, was the assignee of the Secretary of the National Treasury for a position in the Secretary for Financial Control over the Public Sector, from March 1986 to May 1987. Additionally, was the partner-director of “ZLC Associated Consultants S/C Ltda”.