LANGUAGE

Signatories

The document “Convergência pelo Brasil” unites contributions from former Ministers of the Economy and Presidents of the Central Bank with significant services to the nation under different governments for the common good: restore the Brazilian economy with sustainability and social and environmental responsibility.

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ALEXANDRE TOMBINI

(President of the Central Bank from 01.01.2011 to 06.09.2016)
Earned his bachelor’s degree in Economics from the Universidade de Brasília in 1984 and holds a PhD from the University of Illinois, earned in 1991. Worked at the Central Bank since 1998, having occupied the various positions, such as director of the financial system organization and regulations. Stepped away from the bank between 2001 and 2005, when became the senior advisor for the executive board in the Brazilian representative office inside the International Monetary Fund (IMF), always collaborating with negotiations between Brazil and the institution.
Assumed the position of executive director of the International Monetary Fund, replacing Otaviano Canuto and is currently working at BIS (Bank for International Settlements), in Mexico City.
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ARMÍNIO FRAGA

(President of the Central Bank from 03.04.1999 to 01.01.2003)
He graduated in Economics from the Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-RJ) and holds a doctoral degree from Princeton University. In March 1999, left the Soros Fund Management board of directors to become the president of the Central Bank, a position he occupied until January 2003. Afterwards, he created the Gávea Investimentos, a patrimony management company where he still acts to this day. He is also a founding partner at the Instituto de Estudos para Políticas de Saúde (IEPS), a non-lucrative organization looking to contribute to the enhancement of public policies inside the Brazilian health sector.

EDUARDO GUARDIA

(Minister of the Economy from 04.10.2018 to 12.31.2018)
Holding a doctoral degree in Economics from the Universidade de São Paulo (USP) and a master degree from the Universidade Estadual de Campinas (Unicamp), was the executive secretary during Henrique Meirelles’ acting as minister of the economy. Additionally, he was secretary of the National Treasury, State of São Paulo’s secretary of the economy, and product and investors relationship director at the former BM&FBovespa. Nowadays, works as the president of BTG Pactual Asset Management.

FERNANDO HENRIQUE CARDOSO

(Minister of the Economy from 05.19.1993 to 03.30.1994 and President of the Republic)
President of the Republic for two consecutive terms (1995-2002), is currently the president of the Fernando Henrique Cardoso Foundation (FHC Foundation, São Paulo) and honorary president of the national office of the Brazilian Social Democratic Party (PSDB). Additionally, presides the Global Commission for Drug Policies and is one of the twelve members of the Elders, an independent group with global leaders defending peace and human rights, created in 2007 by Nelson Mandela.
Licensed in Sociology by the Universidade de São Paulo (USP), where became a professor in 1953, also holds a doctorate and a livre docência degree from the same university. Also was the minister of Foreign Affairs during the Itamar Franco’s government (October 1992 to May 1993).

GUSTAVO KRAUSE

(Minister of the Economy from 10.02.1992 to 12.16.1992)
Graduated in Law Sciences from the Universidade de Direito do Recife. From 1986 to 1987, was the governor of the state of Pernambuco. Elected to the city council of Recife in 1988, and, in 1990, to the national congress. Assumed the position as minister of the Economy during the Itamar Franco’s government. During Fernando Henrique Cardoso’s first term in the presidency, was selected to run the Ministry of Urban Development and Environment.

GUSTAVO LOYOLA

(President of the Central Bank from 11.13.1992 to 03.29.2003 and 06.13.1995 to 08.20.1997)
Former director of financial market regulations and chief of the capital market regulations department of the Central Bank (1990-1992), and, following that period, became president of the Central Bank, after the impeachment of former Brazilian president Fernando Collor. Returned to the position of president of the CB in June 1995, remaining in the position until August 1997, when commanded the rearrangement of the Brazilian bank system. Currently, works as a partner on the consulting firm Tendências Consultoria Integrada.

HENRIQUE MEIRELLES

(Minister of the Economy from 05.13.2016 to 04.06.2018 and President of the Central Bank from 01.01.2003 to 01.01.2011)
Earned his graduation in Civil Engineering from the Escola Politécnica at the University of São Paulo, was the president of the Central Bank from January 2003 until November 2010, the longest period at the position until today. Before assuming the position at the CB, was the global president of the BankBoston and, in 2002, was elected as a congressman, position abdicated in order to take the presidency of the monetary administration. Between 2016 and 2018, was the minister of the Economy, followed by his candidacy for Brazil’s Presidency. It is currently the State of São Paulo’s secretary of the economy.

ILAN GOLDFAJN

(President of the Central Bank from 06.09.2016 to 02.27.2019)
He graduated in Economics from the Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro in 1988, obtained his doctorate from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in 1995. Preceding his time as the president of the CB, worked at the academy, international institutions, such as the International Monetary Fund (IMF), and at the finance sector. It’s currently the president of Credit Suisse in Brazil.

JOAQUIM LEVY

(Minister of the Economy from 01.01.2015 to 12.21.2015)
Holds a PhD in Economics from the University of Chicago, a master degree in economics from the Fundação Getúlio Vargas and a bachelor degree in Naval Engineering from the Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro. In January 2003, was designated as the secretary of the national treasury and, in 2007, became State of Rio de Janeiro’s secretary of the economy. Between 2010 and the end of 2014, was the head of corporate strategies and director responsible for the asset management of the bank Bradesco and, in 2018, had a brief tenure as the president of the National Bank for Economic and Social Development (BNDES). Nowadays, works as the director of economic strategies and market relations at Banco Safra.

LUIZ CARLOS BRESSER-PEREIRA

(Minister of the Economy from 04.29.1987 to 12.21.1987)
Earned his bachelor’s degree in Law from the Universidade de São Paulo in 1957, when worked as reporter, reviser, film critic, writer and secretary of the newspapers O Tempo and Última Hora (1956-1957). In 1961, obtained the title of Master of Business Administration from the Michigan State University and, in 1963, entered the Pão de Açúcar group, where worked in the position of administrative director from 1965 to 1983. Regarding his public life, was the president-director of Banespa (1983-1984) and secretary of the State of São Paulo.
In 1987, had a brief passage by the Ministry of Science and Technology, as a secretary, and subsequently assumed the Ministry of the Economy, replacing Dilson Funaro. After his exit from the Economy, rejoined the Pão de Açúcar group and resumed his academic career, as a visiting professor in the Advanced Studies Institute from the Universidade de São Paulo and as a full professor in the Fundação Getúlio Vargas.

MAÍLSON DA NÓBREGA

(Minister of the Economy from 12.21.1987 to 03.15.1990)
Holds a bachelor degree in Economics from the Faculdade de Ciências Econômicas Contábeis e de Administração from the Federal District (1974), was a long-serving at the Bank of Brazil since 1963. Presently works as a partner of the consulting firm Tendências and is part of the counselling board in several companies.

MARCÍLIO MARQUES MOREIRA

(Minister of the Economy from 05.10.1991 to 10.02.1992)
Finished, in 1954, the course Preparation for the Diplomat Career of the Instituto Rio Branco and, in 1957, earned his bachelor degree in Law from the Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ). At the end of 1968, invited by Moreira Salles, left, after ten years of service, the Itamaraty personnel became the vice-president of Unibanco, where he worked until 1983, when decided to integrate the Administration Board of the financial group. In 1986, accepted the position of Brazil’s ambassador in the United States of America. Currently, works as president of the Corporate Council for Economic Policies of Rio de Janeiro’s Commercial Association (Conselho Empresarial de Políticas Econômicas da Associação Comercial do Rio de Janeiro, ACRJ).

NELSON BARBOSA

(Minister of the Economy from 12.21.2015 to 05.12.2016)
Earned his bachelor degree in Economics from the Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ) in 1992, and also holds a doctorate from the New School of Social Research, from New York. Author of a large number of articles, published in books and journals, was one of the coordinators of the book Política de Salário Mínimo para o Brasil (2015-2018), published in 2015. Assumed the ministry of Planning, Budget and Management and at the end of the same year, was nominated as minister of the Economy. Presently, works as a professor in the Fundação Getúlio Vargas (FGV).

PAULO ROBERTO HADDAD

(Minister of the Economy from 12.16.1992 a 03.01.1993)
Holds a bachelor degree in Economics from the Faculdade de Ciências Econômicas da Universidade Federal of the State of Minas Gerais (1962), completed an specialization course in Economic Planning from the International Institute of Social Studies in Haia, Netherlands, between 1965 and 1966.
Was a full professor in the Faculdade de Ciências Econômicas da UFMG and founder and first director of the Development and Regional Planning Center of UFMG (CEDEPLAR/UFMG – 1968/1973). Was the Secretary of Planning for the State of Minas Gerais’ government between March 1979 and March 1982. Worked as Secretary of Economy for the State of Minas Gerais’ government between March 1982 and March 1983, and director of Economic Planning for the João Pinheiro Foundation from March 1975 and March 1979. Also worked as the presidency’s advisor in ACESITA. Was responsible for the elaboration and execution of various government programmes, such as: Development of Intermediary Centres Programme; Development of Low Income Agriculture and Communities Development Programmes.

PEDRO MALAN

(Minister of the Economy from 01.01.1995 to 01.01.2003 and president of the Central Bank from 09.09.1993 to 12.31.1994)
Was the minister of the Economy during two terms of Fernando Henrique Cardoso and, before that, presided the Central Bank, participating in the development of the Plano real. Between 1991 and 1993, was the leading negotiator of Brazilian external debt. After leaving the government, participated in administration boards of some big companies, such as Itaú Unibanco and Via Varejo. Holds a doctorate in Economics and also was a professor at PUC-RJ.

PÉRSIO ARIDA

(President of the Central Bank from 01.11.1995 to 06.13.1995)
Earned his bachelor degree in Economics from the Universidade de São Paulo (USP) (1975) and holds a doctorate from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) (1992), was a professor at USP and the Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-RJ). Worked in the elaboration of the Plano Real, was president of the National Bank for Economic and Social Development (BNDES) between 1993 and 1994. Since 2018, integrates the counsel of the Conselho Acadêmico do Livres, a Brazilian sociopolitical movement that defends economic and social liberalism.

RUBENS RICÚPERO

(Minister of the Economy from 03.30.1994 to 09.06.1994)
He graduated in Law and Social Sciences from the Faculdade de Direito da Universidade de São Paulo (USP), completed a preparation course for the diplomacy career, becoming an ambassador. Additionally, was a professor at the Universidade de Brasília and Instituto Rio Branco. Worked as the minister of the Environment from September 1993 to April 1994 and, following that period, assumed the ministry of Economy, participating in the creation of the Plano Real.
Nowadays, is the director of the Faculdade Fundação Armando Álvares Penteado, and president meritus of the Instituto Fernand Braudel.

Zélia Cardoso de Mello

(Minister of the Economy from 03.15.1990 to 05.10.1991)
She graduated in Economics from the Faculdade de Economia e Administração at Universidade de São Paulo, holds a doctorate and also was a professor at the same institution, with participation in various research projects. Invited by the former minister of the Economy Dilson Funaro to integrate its economic team, was the assignee of the Secretary of the National Treasury for a position in the Secretary for Financial Control over the Public Sector, from March 1986 to May 1987. Additionally, was the partner-director of “ZLC Associated Consultants S/C Ltda”.